SPSS is a software package, which is used for statistical analyses. SPSS is mainly leveraged in the business analysis domain of various professionals such as Surveyors, Marketing Professionals, Market Researchers, etc. SPSS was initially a product of SPSS Inc. which is now acquired by IBM Corp. SPSS is an easy-to-learn software application.
SPSS is designed to operate in various Operating System platforms such as Windows, Mac, and Linux/Unix. The latest release of SPSS is 22.0. SPSS is a user-friendly Analysis Software. 

Unlike other analytics software, SPSS has a good User Interface and is self-sufficient for many professionals, delivering with high efficiency.

SPSS has pulled down menu through which the one can access the various options and features of the tool. There are two types of view in SPSS, which are Data View and Variable View.

1. Data View: Data View is where the actual data can be viewed as it is viewed in Spreadsheet.
2. Variable View: Variable View is where the metadata dictionary can be viewed.

The methodology through which SPSS is taught plays a vital role in a student’s understanding. SPSS is a GUI-based, statistical tool which needs to be trained in a student-friendly approach. We at Ampersand Academy, train our students in the apt approach which enables them to learn SPSS at ease. Despite, the student’s knowledge of theoretical statistics in our approach enables students to learn SPSS with ease.
Scope of SPSS:
SPSS is considered one of the most leveraged tools for statistical analyses. What makes special about SPSS is its user-friendliness and comprehensiveness. SPSS has great scope both for research purposes and for jobs. SPSS is one of the vital and most leveraged tools for the statistical analysis in the research field. SPSS is used in domains such as market research, clinical analysis, econometric analyses, etc. Furthermore, SPSS has been leveraged widely in many market analytics companies and even in financial companies for analytics. Various positions offered for SPSS:
     • 1. Research Analyst
     • 2. Statistical Modeler
     • 3. Statistician
     • 4. Data Analyst
     • 5. Business Analytics Consultant
     • 6. Business Information Analyst


AMOS is statistical software and it stands for analysis of a moment structures. AMOS is an added SPSS module and is especially used for Structural Equation Modeling, path analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. It is also known as analysis of covariance or causal modeling software. AMOS is a visual program for structural equation modeling (SEM). In AMOS, we can draw models graphically using simple drawing tools. AMOS quickly performs the computations for SEM and displays the results.

The calculation of SEM coefficients, AMOS uses the following methods:
    Maximum likelihood
    Unweighted least squares
    Generalized least squares
    Browne’s asymptotically distribution-free criterion
    Scale-free least squares

Construction of model in AMOS:

First, we have to run AMOS. By clicking the “start” menu and selecting the “AMOS graphic” option, we can run the program. The moment AMOS starts running, a window appears called the “AMOS graphic.” In this window, we can manually draw our SEM model.

Attaching Data: By selecting a file name of the data file option, we can attach data in AMOS for SEM analysis. This option also appears if we will click on the “select data” icon.

Observed Variable: A rectangle icon is used to draw the observed variable.

Unobserved Variable: A circle icon is used to draw the unobserved variable.

Cause Effect Relationship: A single headed arrow in AMOS is used to draw the cause-effect relationship between the observed and unobserved variables.

Covariance: A double-headed arrow is used to draw the covariance between variables.

Error Term: In AMOS, the error term icon is next to the unobserved variable icon, and it is used to draw the latent variable.

Naming the Variable: When we right click on a variable in a graphical window, the first option, “object properties,” is used to give the name of the variable in AMOS.

There are other icons as well, and these icons help in drawing the SEM model graphical. Icons such as erase icon, moving icon, calculate icon, view text, analysis properties, etc., help in drawing the SEM model graphs.